Many authors including Di Giacomo have noted this maritime or littoral spread of Haplogroup J2. Looking at J2, and specifically at J2a's frequencies from East to West, certainly provides ample support for a maritime spread of J2 into Europe from its origin in the Northern Fertile Crescent.
Tuesday, October 7, 2008
Pronounced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410)
When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west. Considering how J2a arrived in Western Europe to places like Italy, France and Spain one sees 2 possible routes-by land and by sea. The frequencies of J2a in regions that lie between Western Europe and its' origin in the Near East show that a land route to western Europe was quite unlikely. Di Giacomo et al 2006 studied the Y Chromosomes in the Czech Republic through which the Danube river flows. J2a M410 accounted for only 3.5% of the total in the sample set of 257 individuals. In another study published in 2005, Marjanovic et al looked at Y chromosomes in Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia. J2 (xJ2b) lineages accounted for only 3.5% of their sample involving 256 males from these regions. These rates of course are in very sharp contrast to what we see on islands of the mediterranean which show rates of J2a over 20%. Capelli et al, while studying Y chromosomes of the Mediterranean, noted J2 was present in 21% of their Maltese sample, 36.9% of their sample from Cyprus, and ~28% of Sicilian Samples. Even North African regions, such as Tunisia showed over 10% J2.